Anthropology the origin and dispersal of modern humans essay

At that point the two species are on pretty equal footing.

Out of australia hypothesis

Pieces of inscribed ostrich eggshell turned up at Diepkloof. The sophisticated bone tool and stoneworking technologies at these sites were all from roughly the same time period—between 75, and 55, years ago. Several further replacement models exist, which differ in their emphasis. Archaeologists have found little direct evidence of confrontation between the two peoples. But they also raised questions. Did modern humans wipe out the competition, absorb them through interbreeding, outthink them or simply stand by while climate, dwindling resources, an epidemic or some other natural phenomenon did the job? Thus, it is likely that the African fossil record will document early members of the sapiens lineage showing only some of the derived features of late members of the lineage. The other, out-of-Africa theory, held that modern humans evolved in Africa for many thousands of years before they spread throughout the rest of the world. In the feet the big toe moved into alignment with the other toes to help in forward locomotion. Carving the stone was a very human thing to do. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately — ka, which is at least years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned. In Europe and western Asia they evolved into the Neanderthals. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Multiregional Paleoanthropologists have been searching for decades, looking for signs of early human life throughout Africa Asia and Europe, trying to find clues that tell them where the human race originated. Genetic evidence Investigation of the patterns of genetic variation in modern human populations supports the view that the origin of Homo sapiens is the result of a recent event that is consistent with the Out of Africa Model.

It is significant that modern anatomy evolved prior to modern behavior. Using the genetic distance between African populations and others as a measure of time, they furthermore suggested that Homo sapiens arose betweenandyears ago in Africa.

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Anatomical evidence Sometime prior to 1 million years ago early hominids, sometimes referred to as Homo ergaster, exited Africa and dispersed into other parts of the Old World. Comparing it with skulls from Neanderthals, early modern Europeans and contemporary humans, they discovered it had nothing in common with Neanderthal skulls and only peripheral similarities with any of today's populations.

Chapter 11 the origin and dispersal of modern humans

Only after the weather improved were the survivors able to reunite, multiply and, in the end, emigrate. Keywords: Homo sapiens, modern human, Pleistocene human evolution, Africa 1. Harding and McVean, for example, 33 proposed a more complex meta-population system for the origins of the first AMH. The impact on species recognition of late Pleistocene gene flow between the lineages of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans is also discussed, and finally, I reconsider the nature of the middle Pleistocene ancestor of these lineages, based on recent morphological and genetic data. Finally, around 15, years ago, humans crossed from Asia to North America and from there to South America. She is the only woman from that time to have an unbroken lineage of daughters, though she is neither our only ancestor nor our oldest ancestor. Tools found at Jwalapuram, a 74,year-old site in southern India, match those used in Africa from the same period.

Did modern humans wipe out the competition, absorb them through interbreeding, outthink them or simply stand by while climate, dwindling resources, an epidemic or some other natural phenomenon did the job? Many other species arose in Africa as well and we all shared one thing and that was the ability to walk up on two legs.


Then, about 80, years ago, says Blombos archaeologist Henshilwood, modern humans entered a "dynamic period" of innovation.

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Human evolution