Exploring the underlying causes of youth crime

risk and protective factors for juvenile delinquency

A young man forces his new girlfriend to have sex against her will. These theories maintain that violence is learned through association with deviant role models, including family members and peers.

In short, strengthening investments in cities and social programs to mitigate the stresses and strains of the Great Migration had long been a secondary priority for many liberals, along with enhancing law enforcement and professionalizing the police.

Three youths severely beat a stranger, threaten him with a gun, and rob him of his coat, wallet, and cellphone.

Causes of juvenile delinquency essay

While there is some evidence supporting a genetic effect, the proposed mechanisms are very complex and nonspecific Turbin, First, this report relies on longitudinal studies, which identify risk factors and their effect sizes on the basis of their ability to predict future behavior. They operate both in neighborhoods and in schools, but the concentration of young people in schools may intensify the influence of these groups. Most studies of protective factors do not specify when in the course of development these factors exert their buffering effects or how they change over the life course. Exposure to violence appears to have a weak predictive effect on relatively immediate violence in experimental studies, but there is little consistent evidence to date for a long-term predictive effect. A third risk factor with a large effect size on violence is belonging to a gang. Boys and young men are far more likely than girls to be violent see Chapter 2 , yet some researchers have suggested that sex is a risk marker rather than a risk factor Earls, ; Hawkins et al. As they progress through elementary school, children gain valuable reasoning and problem-solving skills as well as social skills. Like commitment to school, a positive social orientation indicates that a young person has adopted traditional values and norms, a slightly different emphasis than intolerance of deviance. Committing serious but not necessarily violent criminal offenses is also an important risk factor in adolescence. Protective Factors There is some disagreement about exactly what protective factors are. In the context of this report, risk factors increase the probability that a young person will become violent, while protective factors buffer the young person against those risks.

The growth of incarceration in the United States during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for U.

The reanalysis of the Jessor data shows that involvement in family, volunteer, and school club activities other than sports has an insignificant effect on risk for violence Turbin, Why do some youths get caught up in violence while others do not?

They are useful for identifying vulnerable populations that may be amenable to intervention efforts.

Exploring the underlying causes of youth crime

By the same token, protective factors cannot guarantee that a child exposed to risk will not become violent. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States examines research and analysis of the dramatic rise of incarceration rates and its affects. The public health approach to youth violence involves identifying risk and protective factors, determining how they work, making the public aware of these findings, and designing programs to prevent or stop the violence. These are only a few examples of the types of violent incidents that sometimes take place in our society. It is quite difficult to negotiate and organize the plethora of ideas, hypotheses and empirical findings that mark the study of crime and violence. Additional research is needed to sort out the unique influence of each of these types of aggression. Two moderate risk factors emerge in childhood, being male and aggression. Violence in the family, especially, may inhibit young children's ability to form trusting relationships and develop independence. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA may play a role in aggression, but so far their mechanisms of action are unclear and there is insufficient evidence to consider them predictors of violence. Elementary school children who live in violent neighborhoods may also experience sleep disturbances and be less likely to explore their environment. The UCR aggravated assault series trended upward from the early s through the early s, while the NCVS aggravated assault series which is defined similarly was trending downward.

This section is followed by a review of the social learning and sub-cultural perspectives. It describes the power of early risk factors, which come into play before puberty, and late risk factors, which exert their influence after puberty, to predict the likelihood of youth violence.

factors leading to juvenile delinquency

The southern strategy was different in that it rested on politicizing the crime issue in a racially coded manner. Such young people are unlikely to engage in violence, both because it is incompatible with their orientation and because it would jeopardize their achievement in school and their standing with adults Jessor et al.

For example, a child who is physically aggressive and is rejected by peers or who has difficulty concentrating or sitting still in class may understandably have difficulty performing academic tasks.

risk factors for juvenile delinquency

Limited social and economic resources contribute to parental stress, child abuse and neglect, damaged parent-child relations, and family breakup -- all risk factors with small effects in childhood.

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The Root Causes of Youth Violence: A Review of Major Theoretical Perspectives