They highlight the importance of multimodal imaging studies in relation to cognitive and behavioral outcomes as especially important areas for research. For the other forms of spina bifida, the level of the spinal lesion clearly affects function, almost always leading to impairment of the lower extremities, a neurogenic bladder [ Clayton et al.
In some cases, there are no effects at all while in other cases, acute leg frailty as well as bladder and anal problems could occur. Meningocele In this form of Spina Bifida, the protective meninges and spinal fluid are left exposed from the spinal column which develops quite normally.
Again, in order to understand some of this information you have to understand some of the meanings.
Congenital scoliosis is caused by an abnormal formation of the vertebrate. The cognitive phenotype of spina bifida myelomeningocele. The most common form of spina bifida, myelomeningocele is often used interchangeably with spina bifida.
Dev Disabil Res Rev. This issue, in which most of the authors were also involved in this meeting, provides an opportunity to summarize research findings and contemporary treatment approaches in depth and in multiple domains.
He calls for research that is multisite, and which incorporates patients in the fourth, fifth, and sixth decades. Del Bigio  provides a review of the effects of hydrocephalus on brain development, structure, and function.
Myelomeningocele This is the worst form of Spina Bifida and it is characterized by an exposed spinal cord and protective meninges. The prevalence in many parts of the world is higher than in North America.